Skizofrenia Simpleks (sebuah studi kasus perspektif psikologi)

Duddy Fachrudin

Sari


ABSTRAK
Skizofrenia simpleks merupakan suatu tipe skizofrenia yang tidak lazim yang dicirikan pada perkembangan yang perlahan, namun bersifat progresif dari gejala negatif skizofrenia, seperti ketidakmampuan untuk memenuhi tuntutan masyarakat, dan penurunan kinerja secara menyeluruh. Tidak seperti tipe skizofrenia lainnya (hebefrenik, paranoid, dan katatonik), skizofrenia simpleks sulit ditemukan dan ditentukan diagnosisnya. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) V menghapus diagnosis untuk skizofrenia simpleks, namun dalam Pedoman Penggolongan Diagnostik Gangguan Jiwa (PPDGJ) III dan International and Classification Diseases (ICD)-10 masih disertakan. Studi kasus ini membahas pasien yang didiagnosis skizofrenia simpleks dengan diagnosis pembandingnya episode depresif berat dengan gejala psikotik. Seorang laki-laki bernama AY, berusia 28 tahun, dan tidak tamat sekolah dasar tidak memiliki figur ayah. Klien AY pernah bekerja secara wajar serta menyukai lawan jenis. Kemunduran fungsi psikologis kemudian terjadi. Simtom negatif dari skizofrenia pada AY sangat menonjol, yaitu sedikit berbicara, afek datar, menarik diri dari pergaulan sosial, minat dan ambisi kurang, dan dorongan vitalitas rendah. AY memiliki ide atau pikiran-pikiran bahwa dirinya bersalah, berdosa, dan memandang sesuatu tampak kotor sehingga terdapat perilaku mencuci yang berulang-ulang. Hasil integrasi tes psikologi menjukkan tanda-tanda patologis, yaitu depresi, cemas berlebihan, dan gangguan afek. Dinamika psikologi AY menunjukkan beberapa pengalaman traumatik pada masa kecil yang direpres. Konflik yang berkembang dengan ibu sehingga menghasilkan kompleks antara ego alien dengan ego.
Kata kunci: skizofrenia simpleks, simtom negatif, diagnosis, ego


ABSTRACT
Simple Schizophrenia is an unusual type of schizophrenia characterized by slow, progressive development of negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as inability to meet community demands, and overall performance degradation. Unlike other types of schizophrenia (hebephrenic, paranoid, and catatonic), simple schizophrenia is difficult to determine the diagnosis. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) V cleared the diagnosis for simple schizophrenia, but in the Mental Disorder Diagnostic Classification Guidelines (MDDCG) III and International and Classification Diseases (ICD) -10 are included. This case study discusses patients diagnosed with simple schizophrenia with a comparative diagnosis of severe depressive episodes with psychotic symptoms. A man named AY, aged 28 years, and did not finish primary school has no father figure. He has worked fairly and liked the woman. The decline of psychological function then occurs. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia in AY are very prominent, ie, little speech, flat affects, withdrawal from social intercourse, lack of interest and ambition, and low vitality drive. AY has ideas or thoughts that he is guilty, sinful, and looks at something so dirty that there is repetitive washing behavior. The integration result of psychological tests shows pathological signs, such as depression, anxiety, and affective disorders. The psychological dynamics of AY shows some traumatic experiences in childhood that are repressed. Conflict that develops with the mother so as to produce a complex between alien ego with ego.
Keywords: schizophrenia simplex, negative symptom, diagnosis, ego


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Referensi


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